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Illuminations Center for Dyslexia
The International Dyslexia Association states that it is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and /or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
International Dyslexia Association, 2004
Dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific, language-gased disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to problems reading, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling.
G. Reid Lyon
"Toward a Definition of Dyslexia
Annals of Dyslexia, Volume XLV, 1995
A disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, sociocultural opportunity. It is dependent upon fundamental cognitive disabilities which are frequently of constitutional origin.
World Federation of Neurology, 1968
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